In the United States, employees typically work five days a week for eight hours each day. However, many employees want to work a four-day week and are willing to accept less pay in order to do so. A mandatory policy requiring companies to offer their employees the option of working a four-day workweek for four-fifths (80 percent) of their normal pay would benefit the economy as a whole as well as the individual companies and the employees who decided to take the option. The shortened workweek would increase company profits because employees would feel more rested and alert, and as a result, they would make fewer costly errors in their work. Hiring more staff to ensure that the same amount of work would be accomplished would not result in additional payroll costs because four-day employees would only be paid 80 percent of the normal rate. In the end, companies would have fewer overworked and error-prone employees for the same money, which would increase company benefits. For the country as a whole, one of the primary benefits of offering this option to employees is that it would reduce unemployment rate. If many full-time employees started working fewer hours, some of their workload would have to be shifted to others. Thus, for every four employees who went on an 80 percent week, a new employee could be hired at the 80 percent rate. Finally, the option of a four-day workweek would be better for individual employees. Employees who could afford a lower salary in exchange for more free time could improve the quality of their lives by spending the extra time with their families, pursuing private interests or enjoying leisure activities.
The professor actually contradicts the statements made in the passage. She is of the view that dinosaurs are not endotherms i.e. they were not able to keep their body temperature at a constant rate.
The professor contradicts the issue of dinosaurs being endothers based on the availability of fossils being available in thwe polar regions, she say that the polar regions in those days were not as cold as they are today i.e at least warm enough for dinosaurs to live. Durin harsh winters she says that there is a possibility of the dinosaurs actually migrating to warmer regions.
The issue of leg position and movement being used as a reason to clasify the dinosaurs as endotherms does not please the professor either. She says that dinosaurs had legs under their bodies to support their huge bodies i.e the legs under the body of the dinosaur were actually to support the huge weight of the dinosaur and not to provide it with a body structure like endotherms(which is actually suited for running).
The professor acknowledges the presence of haversian canals but also points out that that the fossils show the presence of growth rings. These rings occur due to the thickening of the bone. The thickening indicates that the dinosaurs were'nt actually growing continuously but were experiencing periods of rapid growth and periods of no growth in succesion. This pattern. she says is characteristic of non endothermic aanimals.
Thus it can be inferred that the professor challenges the passage by giving reasons as to why she thinks that the dinosaur is not an endotherm.
The speaker questions the effectiveness of web based surveys by providing evidences contradictory to the reading.
First, he identified the reading's logical flaw in assuming that an increase in the scope and quantity of the survey will automatically translate to greater precision of the surveys. However, if surveys aim to question people over 60 years old, how can these old people conduct surveys online since this group seldom surf the Internet? The web surveys are effective in reaching mainly the young generation. Thus the results cannot be extended to demonstrate the views of the whole population.
Second, although the web-based surveys will lower paper cost, they will inevitably incur new costs in web designing, flashy features, and other elements, which will require more costly team work. This evidence effectively attacks the reading's argument that web surveys will certainly reduce the cost of the survey.
In the end, many web designers tend to overdo in the webpage and add fancy and flashy features. As a result, many people perceive the web-based surveys as not serious and are thus not willing to respond to the surveys. Unlike physical surveys that draw attention effectively, many web based surveys are simply ignored or even deleted.